There are as many definitions of stress as there are definitions of fatigue, mental health and upset. Stress is a negative feeling, associated with physical symptoms including increased heartbeat, swiftness of breath, dry mouth, and sweaty palms and over the longer term, digestive upset and cramp.
The history of the ambulance begins in ancient times, with the use of carts to transport incurable patients by force. Ambulances were first used for emergency transport in 1487 by the Spanish, and civilian variants were put into operation during the 1830s. Advances in technology throughout the 19th and 20th centuries led to the modern self-powered ambulances that have evolved today.
The term Ambulance comes from the Latin word ambulare, meaning to walk or move about which is a reference to early medical care where patients were moved by lifting or wheeling. The word originally meant a moving hospital, which follows an army in its movements. During the American Civil War vehicles for conveying the wounded off the field of battle were called Ambulance wagons. Field hospitals were still called Ambulances during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and in the Serbo-Turkish war of 1876 even though the wagons were first referred to as Ambulances about 1854 during the Crimean War.
The education, training and qualification of pre-hospital emergency care practitioners are governed by the Pre-Hospital Emergency Care Council (PHECC). PHECC is the statutory pre-hospital emergency care standards regulator which was established in 2000 under the Health (Corporate Bodies) Act, 1961. PHECC's primary role is to protect the public by ensuring that practitioners achieve and maintain competency at the appropriate performance standard.
Working shifts can affect a Paramedics health and safety. Shift work can affect performance and attentiveness, which may increase the risk of accidents and injuries. Ambulance personnel have irregular patterns of eating; sleeping, working and socialising that may also lead to health problems.